Category Archives: Uncategorized


Four bar mechanism made of paper

Today I am introducing “Four bar mechanism made of paper”

The four-bar mechanism is very useful in the design of mechanical components. The best way to understand four-bar mechanisms is to build it by yourself.  Here, I am introducing how to make a four-bar mechanism with only a paper, screws and nuts. It is very easy to follow.

If you want to know the theories of four-bar mechanisms, see the wiki. Here

1. What you need to prepare

One sheet of paper, four screws and nuts, and a nail (or any sharp one)

2. Procedure

  1.   Prepare a sheet of paperSlide2
  2.  Tear the paper like thisSlide3
  3.   Fold two timesSlide4
  4.  Write numbers like the pictureSlide5
  5.  Make holesSlide6
  6.  Now you should have four bars with eight holesSlide7
  7.  Connect bars. Here the sequence is very important. If you do not follow this sequence the linkage will not rotate because interference with other linkages.Slide8
  8.  Connect allSlide9
  9.  Hold (4) and rotate (1)

This is the result.

This is a Grashof mechanism.

So far, I have introduced how to build a four-bar mechanism made of paper. I hope that this post helps your projects. If you have any question, please leave a reply.

chomod, permission change in linux

This is from “

chmod [OPTION]… –reference=RFILE FILE…

-c, –changes like verbose but report only when a change is made
–no-preserve-root do not treat `/’ specially (the default)
–preserve-root fail to operate recursively on `/’
-f, –silent, –quiet suppress most error messages
-v, verbose output a diagnostic for every file processed
–reference=RFILE use RFILE’s mode instead of MODE values
-R, –recursive change files and directories recursively
–help display this help and exit
–version output version information and exit

u – User who owns the file.
g – Group that owns the file.
o – Other.
a – All.
r – Read the file.
w – Write or edit the file.
x – Execute or run the file as a program.

Numeric Permissions:
CHMOD can also to attributed by using Numeric Permissions:

400 read by owner
040 read by group
004 read by anybody (other)
200 write by owner
020 write by group
002 write by anybody
100 execute by owner
010 execute by group
001 execute by anybody


The above numeric permissions can be added to set a certain permission, for example, a common HTML file on a Unix or Linux server accessible over the Internet would be given the below permissions.

chmod 644 file.htm

This gives the file read/write by the owner and only read by everyone else (-rw-r–r–).

Files such as scripts that need to be executed need more permissions. Below is another example of a common permission given to scripts.

chmod 755 file.cgi

This would be the following 400+040+004+200+100+010+001 = 755 where you are giving all the rights except the capability for anyone to write to the file.cgi file(-rwxr-xr-x).

chmod 666 file.txt

Finally, another common CHMOD permission is 666, as shown below, which is read and write by everyone.

Tip: The above commands are all done through the command line. However, if you upload a file using FTP these permissions can also be adjusted through many FTP clients by right-clicking the file and choosing permissions.

Additional information

Below is an example of how a file may be listed when typing ( ls -l ) at the prompt as well as information on how to interpret it.

-rw-rw-r– 1   hope 123   Feb 03 15:36   file.txt

- rw rw- r– 1 hope 123 Feb 03 15:36 file.txt
File owner group everyone else links owner size mod date file name